COVID-19 status quo: Emphasis on gastrointestinal and liver manifestations

Abhishek Bhurwal, Carlos D. Minacapelli, Evan Orosz, Kapil Gupta, Christopher Tait, Ishita Dalal, Clark Zhang, Eric Zhao, Vinod K. Rustgi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused one of the worst public health crises in modern history. Even though severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 primarily affects the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal manifestations are well described in literature. This review will discuss the epidemiology, virology, manifestations, immunosuppressant states, and lessons learned from COVID-19. Observations: At the time of writing, COVID-19 had infected more than 111 million people and caused over 2.5 million deaths worldwide. Multiple medical comorbidities including obesity, pre-existing liver condition and the use of proton pump inhibitor have been described as risk factor for severe COVID-19. COVID-19 most frequently causes diarrhea (12.4%), nausea/vomiting (9%) and elevation in liver enzymes (15%-20%). The current data does not suggest that patients on immunomodulators have a significantly increased risk of mortality from COVID-19. The current guidelines from American Gastroenterological Association and American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases do not recommend pre-emptive changes in patients on immunosuppression if the patients have not been infected with COVID-19. Conclusions and relevance: The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted a change in structure and shape of gastroenterology departmental activities. Endoscopy should be performed only when necessary and with strict protective measures. Online consultations in the form of telehealth services and home drug deliveries have revolutionized the field.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7969-7981
Number of pages13
JournalWorld Journal of Gastroenterology
Issue number46
StatePublished - Dec 14 2021
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Gastroenterology


  • COVID-19
  • Epidemiology
  • Gastrointestinal manifestations
  • Immunosuppressed states
  • Liver manifestations
  • Status quo
  • Virology


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