Traumatic brain injury often leads to progressive alterations at the molecular to circuit levels resulting in epilepsy and memory impairments. Ex vivo and in vitro models have provided a powerful platform for investigating the multimodal alteration after trauma. Recent ex vivo analyses using voltage sensitive dye imaging, optogenetics, and glutamate uncaging have revealed circuit abnormalities following in vivo brain injury. In vitro injury models have enabled examination of early and progressive changes in activity, whereas development of three-dimensional organoids derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells have opened novel avenues for injury research. Here, we highlight recent advances in ex vivo and in vitro systems, focusing on their potential for advancing mechanistic understandings, possible limitations, and implications for therapeutics.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Biomedical Engineering
- Organotypic cultures
- Stretch injury