Considering the ubiquity of organophosphorus compounds in organic synthesis, pharmaceutical discovery agrochemical crop protection and materials chemistry, new methods for their construction hold particular significance. A conventional method for the synthesis of C−P bonds involves cross-coupling of aryl halides and dialkyl phosphites (the Hirao reaction). We report a catalytic deamidative phosphorylation of a wide range of amides using a palladium or nickel catalyst giving aryl phosphonates in good to excellent yields. The present method tolerates a wide range of functional groups. The reaction constitutes the first example of a transition-metal-catalyzed generation of C−P bonds from amides. This redox-neutral protocol can be combined with site-selective conventional cross-coupling for the regioselective synthesis of potential pharmacophores. Mechanistic studies suggest an oxidative addition/transmetallation pathway. In light of the importance of amides and phosphonates as synthetic intermediates, we envision that this Pd and Ni-catalyzed C−P bond forming method will find broad application.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- N−C activation
- carboxylic acids