Neurogenesis is the process by which new neurons are generated in the brain. Neural stem cells (NSCs) are differentiated into neurons, which are integrated into the neural network. Nowadays, pluripotent stem cells, multipotent stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells can be artificially differentiated into neurons utilizing several techniques. Specific transcriptional profiles from NSCs during differentiation are frequently used to approach and observe phenotype alteration and functional determination of neurons. In this context, the role of non-coding RNA, transcription factors and epigenetic changes in neuronal development and differentiation has gained importance. Epigenetic elucidation has become a field of intense research due to distinct patterns of normal conditions and different neurodegenerative disorders, which can be explored to develop new diagnostic methods or gene therapies. In this review, we discuss the complexity of transcription factors, non-coding RNAs, and extracellular vesicles that are responsible for guiding and coordinating neural development.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Developmental Biology
- Cell Biology
- Neural stem cells
- Non-coding RNAs