This paper describes a process to define a comprehensive list of exemplars for seven core Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and report on interrater reliability in applying these exemplars to determine ASD case classification. Clinicians completed an iterative process to map specific exemplars from the CDC Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network criteria for ASD surveillance, DSM-5 text, and diagnostic assessments to each of the core DSM-5 ASD criteria. Clinicians applied the diagnostic exemplars to child behavioral descriptions in existing evaluation records to establish initial reliability standards and then for blinded clinician review in one site (phase 1) and for two ADDM Network surveillance years (phase 2). Interrater reliability for each of the DSM-5 diagnostic categories and overall ASD classification was high (defined as very good.60–.79 to excellent ≥.80 Kappa values) across sex, race/ethnicity, and cognitive levels for both phases. Classification of DSM-5 ASD by mapping specific exemplars from evaluation records by a diverse group of clinician raters is feasible and reliable. This framework provides confidence in the consistency of prevalence classifications of ASD and may be further applied to improve consistency of ASD diagnoses in clinical settings.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Autism spectrum disorder
- Clinician reliability