Dermal Toxicity of Sulfur Mustard

Joshua P. Gray, Michael P. Shakarjian, Donald Gerecke, Robert P. Casillas

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This chapter describes the dermal toxicity events of the alkylating agent, sulfur mustard [bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide], which ultimately causes detachment of the epidermis from the dermis. Skin exposure to sulfur mustard (SM) starts a series of dermal toxicity events with severity determined in part by mediators of injury that regulate inflammation, immune responses, apoptosis, necrosis, and a number of signaling pathways. This complex series of events involves a host of normal skin responses to wounding that interact with, influence, and regulate each other. Each step of the injury process is described in detail and an in-depth comparison is made between SM-induced and other types of wound injury. Various in vitro and in vivo SM injury models are described and potential therapeutic countermeasures are identified.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationHandbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents
Subtitle of host publicationSecond Edition
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages20
ISBN (Print)9780128001592
StatePublished - Jan 21 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine(all)


  • 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide
  • Animal models
  • Blister
  • Dermal
  • Mechanisms
  • Medical countermeasures
  • Nitrogen mustard
  • Sulfur mustard
  • Vesicant

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  • Cite this

    Gray, J. P., Shakarjian, M. P., Gerecke, D., & Casillas, R. P. (2015). Dermal Toxicity of Sulfur Mustard. In Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents: Second Edition (pp. 557-576). Elsevier Inc..