Graphene is already being used in a wide variety of applications including electronics, energy, sensing, and even bioapplications such as biosensors, drug delivery, stem cell differentiation, and cellular imaging. In terms of the synthesis of graphene-nanoparticle hybrids, numerous avenues are currently available for the preparation of hybrids composed of graphene-based nanomaterials and various nanoparticles. These include in situ and ex situ methods. However, the optimal method depends greatly on the requirements of the desired application. It should be noted that ex situ methods have also been used for cellular application, especially for stem cell differentiation as well as applications using graphene-encapsulated nanoparticles. electronic sensors wherein graphene-nanoparticle hybrids are applied to FET-based devices can currently achieve the highest sensitivity with a LOD in the attomolar range. Hybrid sensors that utilize optical mechanisms also have great promise as they can potentially allow for the detection of single molecules as well as the quantification of molecules in living cells in a nondestructive manner. graphene-nanoparticle hybrids have led to the enhancement of image contrast, cancer therapies, and stem cell differentiation.
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