Development and validation of the Full Restaurant Evaluation Supporting a Healthy (FRESH) Dining Environment Audit

Tanya M. Horacek, Elif Dede Yildirim, Marlei Simon, Carol Byrd Bredbenner, Adrienne A. White, Karla P. Shelnutt, Melissa D. Olfert, Jesse Morrell, Anne Mathews, Tandalayo Kidd, Kendra Kattelmann, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Sarah Colby, Onikia Brown

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The Full Restaurant Evaluation Supporting a Healthy (FRESH) Dining Environment Audit was developed and validated to assess cafeterias and restaurants (n = 362). Each scale item was scored using a 5-point semantic-differential rating (1 = little/no options/support to 5 = extensive options/high support for healthy food selection). Statistical analysis included factor analysis, analysis of variance, and correlations. The Healthfulness of Foods (HF) sub-scale assessed menu descriptions to determine healthful foods availability (12 items, α = .82, possible = 60). The Dining Environmental Supports (ES) sub-scale assessed nutrition information/labeling, signage/posters, and portion/cup sizes (eight items, α = .78; possible = 40). Cafeterias consistently scored higher than other restaurant types on HF (29.45 ± 12.17 SD) and ES (22.10 ± 5.27 SD). Convergent validity was confirmed (n = 91; HF: r = .854, p ≤ .001 and ES: r = .529, p ≤ .01). The FRESH audit is a simple tool that effectively assessed differences in the healthfulness of foods and environmental supports between a variety of dining venues.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)381-400
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Hunger and Environmental Nutrition
Volume14
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - May 4 2019

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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Health(social science)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Keywords

  • Consumer food environment assessment
  • dining environment audit
  • dining environment supports
  • instrument development
  • nutrition environment
  • restaurant evaluation

Cite this

Horacek, Tanya M. ; Dede Yildirim, Elif ; Simon, Marlei ; Byrd Bredbenner, Carol ; White, Adrienne A. ; Shelnutt, Karla P. ; Olfert, Melissa D. ; Morrell, Jesse ; Mathews, Anne ; Kidd, Tandalayo ; Kattelmann, Kendra ; Franzen-Castle, Lisa ; Colby, Sarah ; Brown, Onikia. / Development and validation of the Full Restaurant Evaluation Supporting a Healthy (FRESH) Dining Environment Audit. In: Journal of Hunger and Environmental Nutrition. 2019 ; Vol. 14, No. 3. pp. 381-400.