Diabetic Macular Edema: Pathogenesis and Treatment

Neelakshi Bhagat, Ruben A. Grigorian, Arthur Tutela, Marco A. Zarbin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

389 Scopus citations


Diabetic macular edema is a major cause of visual impairment. The pathogenesis of macular edema appears to be multifactorial. Laser photocoagulation is the standard of care for macular edema. However, there are cases that are not responsive to laser therapy. Several therapeutic options have been proposed for the treatment of this condition. In this review we discuss several factors and mechanisms implicated in the etiology of macular edema (vasoactive factors, biochemical pathways, anatomical abnormalities). It seems that combined pharmacologic and surgical therapy may be the best approach for the management of macular edema in diabetic patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-32
Number of pages32
JournalSurvey of ophthalmology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2009

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ophthalmology


  • AGEs
  • OCT
  • PEDF
  • PKC
  • RAGE
  • VEGF
  • angiotensin II
  • blood retinal barrier
  • clinically significant macular edema
  • diabetic macular edema
  • intravitreal steroid injection
  • laser photocoagulation
  • leukostasis
  • micropulse sub-threshold laser
  • retinal thickness analyzer
  • steroids
  • vasoactive factors
  • vitrectomy
  • vitreoretinal interface


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