Dietary restriction of energy and calcium alters bone turnover and density in younger and older female rats

Shawn M. Talbott, Michael M. Rothkopf, Sue A. Shapses

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

72 Scopus citations

Abstract

To determine the influence of weight loss with or without adequate calcium intake on bone turnover and density, we examined the influence of dietary restriction of calcium or energy on body weight (BW), bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover in both younger (3 mo) and older (10 mo) female rats (n = 66). Diets were designed to allow feeding at two levels of calcium intake (normal = 78 mg/d and low = 15 mg/d) and two levels of energy intake (normal and 40% restriction) while keeping the intake of protein, fat, fiber, vitamins and other minerals equal between groups. Thus rats received either a control diet (CNTL), a diet restricted in calcium, energy or both for 9 wk. Energy restriction reduced BW 5-21% (P < 0.01) and elevated bone formation 10-20% (P < 0.05) in both age groups. Bone resorption was 20-40% above CNTL values (P < 0.05), in rats fed all three restricted diets. In younger rats, BMD increased over time in all groups (P < 0.05), but final BMD was lower in calcium restricted groups compared with CNTL (P < 0.01). In older rats, CNTL had a significantly greater final BMD (P < 0.05) than diet- restricted groups. These data indicate that, in both younger and older rats, dietary restriction of calcium or energy results in an elevated rate of bone turnover. BMD is compromised by calcium restriction in both younger and older rats, whereas only older rats were negatively influenced by dietary energy restriction. Thus the present study indicates a detrimental effect of low- energy diets, as well as inadequate calcium intake, on bone density in mature rats.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)640-645
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Volume128
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1998

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Keywords

  • Bone density
  • Bone turnover
  • Calcium
  • Energy restriction
  • Rats

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