PR1 cells are a prolactin (PRL)-secreting cell line derived from a pituitary lactotroph tumor found in 17β-estradiol-treated Fischer 344 rats. We examined the effect of estrogen on cell proliferation and PRL synthesis under various culture conditions. Estrogen, at extremely low concentrations, induces cell proliferation in this cell line, whereas antiestrogen inhibits proliferation. Interestingly, the proliferation response is much more sensitive than the PRL response because 0.01 pM estradiol or diethylstilbestrol induces half-maximal growth induction [≃0.1% estrogen receptor (ER) occupancy is required], whereas 0.01 nM concentration is required for haft-maximal PRL induction (≃50% ER occupancy is required). The proliferation response is not as sensitive to antiestrogen as the PRL response, because 10 nM concentration of the pure antiestrogen ICI 182,780 could not inhibit 1 nM estradiol- or diethylstilbestrol-induced proliferation. The same concentration of ICI 182,780 decreased PRL secretion to 1% of estradiol- or diethylstilbestrol-induced prolactin secretion suggesting a possible dichotomy of ER control of proliferation and PRL synthesis. The K(d) of ER binding in these cells is about 3 x 10-11 M. These results with the PR1 cells extend previous studies in other estrogen- regulated systems and suggest that only a small pool of ER is required for cell proliferation in contrast with the regulation of expression of specific genes. They also raise questions as to how a dimeric receptor functions when only one ligand site is occupied or when both an estrogen and an antiestrogen occupy one dimer.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|State||Published - Mar 3 1998|
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