Differential Susceptibility of Dysmicoccus vaccinii (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) to Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae)

Robin J. Stuart, Sridhar Polavarapu, Edwin E. Lewis, Randy Gaugler

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23 Scopus citations

Abstract

The susceptibility of the mealy bug, Dysmicoccus vaccinii Miller & Polavarapu, to infection by various species and strains of entomopathogenic nematodes was investigated in laboratory sand-dish and sand-column assays. Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) (All strain), S. feltiae (Filipjev) (AB [Australia] strain), and S. glaseri (Steiner) (NC strain) were ineffective against individual mealybugs in sand-dish assays conducted in small petri dishes (1 cm high by 3.5 cm diameter) at 25°C with doses of infective juvenile nematodes ranging up to 500 or 1,000 infective juveniles and exposure periods up to 5 d. However, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (HP88 strain and 2 New Jersey isolates), H. hawaiiensis Gardner, Stock & Kaya (MG-13 strain), and H. indicus Poinar, Karunakar & David (EMS-13 strain) induced significant mortality (65.0-90.0%) at doses as low as 100 infective juveniles and an exposure of 5 d. H. bacteriophora (HBNJ strain) was effective at doses of 500 and 1,000 infective juveniles but, together with H. zealandica Poinar (V16 strain) and 4 other H. bacteriophora isolates from New Jersey, was ineffective at doses of 100 infective juveniles. Removal of the waxy coating from the mealybugs did not influence susceptibility to H. bacteriophora (HP88 strain). In the sand-column assay (5.5 cm high by 5 cm diameter, 5-d exposure, 25°C), which more closely resembles host-finding in the field, H. bacteriophora (HP88 strain) induced no significant mortality against individual mealybugs at doses of 100 infective juveniles but produced 93.8% mortality at 500 infective juveniles, whereas H. indicus (EMS-13 strain) induced 56.3 and 100% mortality at 100 and 500 infective juveniles, respectively. H. bacteriophora (HP88 strain and some New Jersey isolates), H. hawaiiensis (MG-13 strain), and H. indicus (EMS-13 strain) successfully reproduced in and emerged from mealybug cadavers. This study demonstrates strong variability in the susceptibility of D. vaccinii to different species and strains of entomopathogenic nematodes, and implicates certain heterorhabditids as promising candidates for the biological control of this insect.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)925-932
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of economic entomology
Volume90
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1997

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ecology
  • Insect Science

Keywords

  • Biological control
  • Dysmicoccus vaccinii
  • Entomopathogenic nematode
  • Heterorhabditis
  • Steinernema
  • Vaccinium corymbosum

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