The ATP-dependent Lon protease belongs to a unique group of proteases that bind DNA. Eukaryotic Lon is a homo-oligomeric ring-shaped complex localized to the mitochondrial matrix. In vitro, human Lon binds specifically to a single-stranded GT-rich DNA sequence overlapping the light strand promoter of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We demonstrate that Lon binds GT-rich DNA sequences found throughout the heavy strand of mtDNA and that it also interacts specifically with GU-rich RNA. ATP inhibits the binding of Lon to DNA or RNA, whereas the presence of protein substrate increases the DNA binding affinity of Lon 3.5-fold. We show that nucleotide inhibition and protein substrate stimulation coordinately regulate DNA binding. In contrast to the wild type enzyme, a Lon mutant lacking both ATPase and protease activity binds nucleic acid; however, protein substrate fails to stimulate binding. These results suggest that conformational changes in the Lon holoenzyme induced by nucleotide and protein substrate modulate the binding affinity for single-stranded mtDNA and RNA in vivo. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that Lon interacts with mtDNA polymerase γ and the Twinkle helicase, which are components of mitochondrial nucleoids. Taken together, these results suggest that Lon participates directly in the metabolism of mtDNA.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology