Does a Federal Glass Ceiling Have Differential Effects on Female and Male Technology Entrepreneurs?

Todd M. Inouye, Jeffrey A. Robinson, Amol M. Joshi

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Glass ceilings are invisible organizational barriers encountered by underrepresented groups in large hierarchies. This chapter empirically investigates the existence and characteristics of an internal, government-wide glass ceiling for female employees using aggregate pay grade and demographic data on nearly 1.5 million U.S. Federal employees between 2001-2011. The external consequences for over 15,000 technology ventures seeking R&D funding from 12 federal agencies is explored. In this context, the researchers analyze over 50,000 grants and find that a unit increase in a novel, government-wide, glass ceiling measure is a meaningful and negative predictor of subsequent Phase II funding outcomes for Phase I grantees. More importantly, the negative external effects of the identified glass ceilings are significantly larger for women technology entrepreneurs when compared to their male counterparts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationResearch Anthology on Cross-Industry Challenges of Industry 4.0
PublisherIGI Global
Number of pages17
ISBN (Electronic)9781668424063
ISBN (Print)9781668424056
StatePublished - Jan 1 2021
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Economics, Econometrics and Finance(all)
  • Business, Management and Accounting(all)
  • Health Professions(all)
  • Medicine(all)


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