Effects of thermal stresses on the frequency-temperature behavior of piezoelectric resonators

Yook Kong Yong, Mihir Patel, Masako Tanaka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


The frequency-temperature behavior of a piezoelectric crystal resonator can be predicted quite accurately if the resonator is under a stress-free and steady-state uniform temperature condition. The condition is however seldom achieved practically. Most practical resonators are subjected to thermal stresses. Conventional finite element analytical tools such as ANSYS cannot provide a sufficiently accurate model for the frequency-temperature behavior of piezoelectric quartz resonators. A new dynamic frequency-temperature model which accurately predicted the frequency-temperature behavior of quartz resonators affected by transient and steady state temperature changes was presented. Lagrangean equations for small vibrational (incremental) displacements superposed on initial thermal stresses and strains were employed. The initial thermal stresses and strains were obtained from the uncoupled heat and thermoelastic equations. The constitutive equations for the incremental displacements incorporated the temperature derivatives of the material constants. Numerical results were compared with the experimental results for a 50MHz AT-cut quartz resonator mounted on a glass package. Good comparisons between the experimental results and numerical results from our new model were found. The differences between the thermal expansion coefficients of glass and quartz gave rise to the thermal stresses that had adverse effects on the frequency stability of resonators. Different optimal crystal cut angles of quartz, and resonator geometry were found to achieve stable frequency- temperature behavior of the resonator in a glass package. The dynamic frequency-temperature model was used in the theoretical analyses and designs of high Q, 3.3GHz, quartz thin film resonators.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)639-661
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of Thermal Stresses
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2007

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics


  • Effects of thermal stresses and strains
  • Frequency-temperature behavior
  • Incremental displacements
  • Piezoelectric
  • Resonators
  • Temperature derivatives of material constants


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