Background: Acute blood pressure (BP) elevations in neurosurgical patients are associated with serious neurologic, cardiovascular, or surgical site complications. Clevidipine, an ultra-short-acting dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, has been shown to be efficacious and safe for acute hypertension in cardiac surgery. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of clevidipine in controlling perioperative hypertension in the neurosurgical setting. Methods: Patients scheduled for intracranial surgery were prospectively enrolled after giving consent. Clevidipine (0.5mg/mL in 20% lipid solution, which was to be initiated at 10mg/h and titrated to effect) was administered as the primary antihypertensive agent for perioperative hypertension, with target BPs of less than 130mm Hg. Other vasoactive drugs were administered as needed for treating systolic BP (SBP) less than 90mm Hg or greater than 130mm Hg. The primary study endpoint was the proportion of patients not requiring rescue antihypertensives to maintain target SBP (<130mm Hg). Results: Twenty-two patients were enrolled. One patient did not require antihypertensive therapy. Seventeen patients (17 of 21, 81%) were treated with clevidipine alone; one received clevidipine in the postanesthesia care unit only. Twenty-eight hypertensive episodes (defined as any new acute BP elevation requiring clevidipine initiation) were documented. SBP was reduced to target level within 15 minutes in 22 of 28 episodes (78.6%). Two mild hypotensive episodes occurred after the initiation of clevidipine infusion; these transient decreases in BP were treated with vasoactive drugs and resolved within 5 minutes. Conclusions: Clevidipine is effective and safe for perioperative hypertension in patients undergoing intracranial procedures. Rapid control of BP is possible with higher starting doses. Drug effects resolved rapidly after drug discontinuation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Neurology
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
- blood pressure
- calcium antagonist
- calcium channel blocker
- intracranial surgery