Electric-field-assisted stagnation-swirl-flame synthesis of porous nanostructured titanium-dioxide films

Gang Xiong, Aditi Kulkarni, Zhizhong Dong, Shuiqing Li, Stephen D. Tse

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Mesoporous nanostructured titanium-dioxide (TiO2) films, with high uniformity and low packing density, are synthesized in a stagnation swirl-flame setup under an applied electric field, with voltage bias on the substrate and the burner grounded. The effects of uniform external electric-field strength and polarity are studied for different substrate temperatures and precursor-loading concentrations. The results manifest considerable differences in film characteristics, for differing electric fields, with more columnar structures and higher porosities produced under low-magnitude substrate voltages up to |±400|V. Interestingly, films have higher packing density at higher magnitude voltages of |±800|V. At low substrate temperatures, the morphology and structure are more prominent owing to less on-substrate sintering of the nanoparticles. At low-magnitude substrate voltages, oppositely-charged particles are attracted to the substrate, increasing their electrophoretic velocity but decreasing their in-flame growth and agglomeration, resulting in smaller particle size. Along with van der Waals forces and induced dipole-dipole interactions, more columnar-structured growth with lower packing density results. At high-magnitude voltages, the particles seem to acquire the same charge polarity as the voltage bias applied, being repelled and residing in the flame longer, thus increasing in-flame agglomeration and particle size. More branched-structured film growth with high packing density develops.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1065-1075
Number of pages11
JournalProceedings of the Combustion Institute
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


  • Electric field
  • Flame synthesis
  • Packing density
  • Porous film
  • Titanium dioxide


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