Lithium batteries with Si, Al or Bi microsized (>10 µm) particle anodes promise a high capacity, ease of production, low cost and low environmental impact, yet they suffer from fast degradation and a low Coulombic efficiency. Here we demonstrate that a rationally designed electrolyte (2.0 M LiPF6 in 1:1 v/v mixture of tetrahydrofuran and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran) enables 100 cycles of full cells that contain microsized Si, Al and Bi anodes with commercial LiFePO4 and LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathodes. Alloy anodes with areal capacities of more than 2.5 mAh cm−2 achieved >300 cycles with a high initial Coulombic efficiency of >90% and average Coulombic efficiency of >99.9%. These improvements are facilitated by the formation of a high-modulus LiF–organic bilayer interphase, in which LiF possesses a high interfacial energy with the alloy anode to accommodate plastic deformation of the lithiated alloy during cycling. This work provides a simple yet practical solution to current battery technology without any binder modification or special fabrication methods.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Fuel Technology
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology