Electron-beam-induced-current and active secondary-electron voltage-contrast with aberration-corrected electron probes

Myung Geun Han, Joseph A. Garlow, Matthew S.J. Marshall, Amanda L. Tiano, Stanislaus S. Wong, Sang Wook Cheong, Frederick J. Walker, Charles H. Ahn, Yimei Zhu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The ability to map out electrostatic potentials in materials is critical for the development and the design of nanoscale electronic and spintronic devices in modern industry. Electron holography has been an important tool for revealing electric and magnetic field distributions in microelectronics and magnetic-based memory devices, however, its utility is hindered by several practical constraints, such as charging artifacts and limitations in sensitivity and in field of view. In this article, we report electron-beam-induced-current (EBIC) and secondary-electron voltage-contrast (SE-VC) with an aberration-corrected electron probe in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), as complementary techniques to electron holography, to measure electric fields and surface potentials, respectively. These two techniques were applied to ferroelectric thin films, multiferroic nanowires, and single crystals. Electrostatic potential maps obtained by off-axis electron holography were compared with EBIC and SE-VC to show that these techniques can be used as a complementary approach to validate quantitative results obtained from electron holography analysis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)14-19
Number of pages6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Instrumentation


  • Electric biasing
  • Electron holography
  • Electrostatic potential
  • Ferroelectric


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