ELISPOT: A New Approach to Studying the Dynamics of Virus-Immune System Interaction for Diagnosis and Monitoring of HIV Infection

Francis K. Lee, André J. Nahmias, Shannon Lowery, Steven Nesheim, Susan Reef, Sumner Thompson, James Oleske, Anders Vahlne, Cecil Czerkinsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

58 Scopus citations

Abstract

A new approach to detect and enumerate HIV-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC) in the peripheral blood was developed using the enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) methodology. ASC to an HIV envelope recombinant protein were demonstrated in 75% of 16 adults and 72% of 21 children with untreated AIDS or ARC and in 63% of 34 asymptomatically infected adults but in none of the 51 HIV antibody-negative individuals. Only 1 of the 13 adults receiving AZT therapy yielded a positive reaction, and 27% of the 30 infants born to seropositive mothers were found to have HIV-ASC. The number of HIV-ASC in positive individuals varied from 8 to 202 per 106 circulating mononuclear cells. The reactivity was specifically inhibited by soluble HIV antigen and was abrogated by cycloheximide, indicating that the observed reaction was the result of de novo synthesis of HIV-specific antibodies. Nonspecific polyclonal B cell activation was unlikely to be responsible for the results observed as no reactivity was found to a common antigen, tetanus toxoid. Since circulating antigen-specific ASC reflect persistent or recent antigenic stimulation, our findings indicate that this new approach could provide a dynamic perspective of the natural course of virusimmune system interactions in individuals infected with HIV, as well as in those undergoing prophylactic or therapeutic interventions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)517-523
Number of pages7
JournalAIDS research and human retroviruses
Volume5
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1989

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology
  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases

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