## Abstract

The experimental successes of quantum-field theory do not justify using it to describe even a finite fraction of the entanglement entropy of a causal diamond with its exterior, in the limit of large diamonds. Susskind and Uglum and Jacobson conjectured that this divergent entropy could be thought of as a renormalization of Newton’s constant in the Bekenstein–Hawking formula, if we applied that formula to arbitrary causal diamonds. Jacobson showed that this leads to a derivation of the null projection of Einstein’s equations as the hydrodynamic equations of the area law for arbitrary diamonds, a derivation which has the added virtue of demonstrating that the cosmological constant is not an energy density. Using a gauge choice adapted to causal diamond boundaries, we revisit arguments of Carlip and Solodukhin that the proper theory of near horizon states is a (cut-off) (1 + 1)-dimensional conformal field theory, with central charge proportional to the transverse area. This leads to a universal formula for fluctuations of the modular Hamiltonian of a diamond, which we argue is compatible with the explanation of the temperature of de Sitter space in terms of an identification between localized energy and the number of constrained q-bits of the holographic degrees of freedom.

Original language | English (US) |
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Article number | 2341002 |

Journal | International Journal of Modern Physics D |

Volume | 32 |

Issue number | 14 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 2023 |

## All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Mathematical Physics
- Space and Planetary Science

## Keywords

- Quantum gravity
- holographic principle