Enucleation in pediatric open globe injuries: demographics and risk factors

Siri Uppuluri, Aditya Uppuluri, Paul D. Langer, Marco A. Zarbin, Neelakshi Bhagat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Purpose: The purpose of this study is to report the demographics and risk factors for undergoing primary enucleation in the setting of acute open globe injury (OGI) in the pediatric population in the USA. Methods: This retrospective, cross-sectional study of pediatric patients with OGIs in the USA between 2002 and 2014 was conducted utilizing data from the National Inpatient Sample Database. Descriptive statistics, chi-square testing, and univariate and multivariable analyses were performed. Results: In the USA, 8944 cases of pediatric OGI were identified between 2002 and 2014 in the NIS Database, of which 344 underwent primary enucleation. Blacks and Asian/Pacific Islanders made up higher proportions of enucleated cases compared to non-enucleated cases. Older age, male sex, being Black or Asian/Pacific Islander, OGI with an intraocular foreign body, rupture type OGI, and concurrent endophthalmitis were identified as risk factors for undergoing enucleation. There was no significant difference in insurance status among enucleated versus non-enucleated cases. Mean length of hospital stay (in days) was almost 3 times higher in enucleated OGIs. By hospital’s geographic location, the Midwest hospitals had a greater proportion of enucleated versus non-enucleated cases compared to other regions. Conclusion: Significant demographic differences were identified in OGI patients that underwent primary enucleation versus repair with regard to age, sex, race, the geographic location of hospital admission, mean length of hospital stay, type of ocular injury, and other ocular complications. Most pediatric traumatic enucleations between 2002 and 2014 were reported in teenagers (16–20 age group), in males, and in Blacks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3115-3122
Number of pages8
JournalGraefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


  • Enucleation
  • Open globe injury
  • Pediatric ocular trauma
  • Pediatric ophthalmology
  • Risk factors
  • Traumatic eye injury or injuries


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