Epidemiologic analysis of kaposi's sarcoma as an early and later AIDS outcome in homosexual men

Donald R. Hoover, Cynthia Black, Lisa P. Jacobson, Otoniel Martinez-maza, Daniela Seminara, Alfred Saah, Jamie Von Roenn, Roger Anderson, Haroutune K. Armenian

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71 Scopus citations


The authors separately studied the epidemiology (risk and risk factors) of Kaposi's sarcoma occurring as an initial acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) outcome (earty Kaposi's sarcoma) and later after a different initial AIDS outcome (later Kaposi's sarcoma) in a cohort of 2,591 human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected gay men of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study between 1984 and 1992. Among 844 AIDS cases, 202 presented with early Kaposi's sarcoma, 101 subsequently developed later Kaposi's sarcoma, and 541 were not diagnosed with Kaposi's sarcoma. Overall, 37.4% of AIDS cases were diagnosed with Kaposi's sarcoma prior to death. Kaposi's sarcoma diagnosed on the skin was significantly more common with early Kaposi's sarcoma (77.3%) than with later Kaposi's sarcoma (65.1%). Men presenting with an AIDS outcome other than Kaposi's sarcoma were at high risk for later Kaposi's sarcoma. Later Kaposi's sarcoma onset in men with a previous AIDS outcome was associated with the following characteristics: 1) lower immune status prior to AIDS and 2) longer post-AIDS survival. A Kaposi's sarcoma diagnosis in a man with a previous AIDS illness approximately doubled the risk (hazard) for death. Histories of urethral gonorrhea and scabies prior to study entry were more common in early Kaposi's sarcoma cases than in later Kaposi's sarcoma cases. However, self-reported sexual activity at study entry and prior to AIDS onset was highest in the later Kaposi's sarcoma group. In this cohort, cigarette smoking had a protective association against all Kaposi's sarcoma in univariate and multivariate models. Only 21.0% of the later Kaposi's sarcoma and 25.0% of the early Kaposi's sarcoma men smoked at least one-half pack of cigarettes daily at study entry compared with 33.8% of non-Kaposi's sarcoma and 35.5% of seroprevalent men still AIDS free. The reasons for this surprising association are unclear. However, other evidence which documents that habitual smoking alters the immune system (and possibly cytokine levels) in ways that could perhaps influence Kaposi's sarcoma pathogenesis should be considered. Am J Epidemiol 1993; 138:266-78.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)266-278
Number of pages13
JournalAmerican journal of epidemiology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 15 1993
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Epidemiology


  • Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
  • Cytokines
  • Kaposi's
  • Risk
  • Risk factors
  • Sarcoma
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Smoking


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