Epidemiology and outcomes associated with moderate to heavy Candida colonization during pregnancy

M. F. Cotch, S. L. Hillier, R. S. Gibbs, D. A. Eschenbach, S. J. Yaffe, C. S. Catz, George Rhoads, R. P. Nugent, D. McNellis, M. A. Klebanoff, H. W. Berendes, R. Edelman, W. C. Blackwelder, R. A. Kaslow, G. F. Reed, M. F. Cotch, J. A. Regan, E. M. Greenberg, S. Willams, D. A. MartinJ. J. Pastorek, L. Wenthold, C. Cammarata, P. Sommers, J. C. Carev, P. J. Rettig, R. Wilkerson, R. S. Gibbs, D. A. Eschenbach, S. L. Hillier, M. A. Krohn, A. V. Rao, W. K. Poole

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169 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine the risk factors, physical findings, microflora, and pregnancy outcome among pregnant women with moderate to heavy vaginal growth of Candida albicans and other Candida species. STUDY DESIGN: A multicenter cohort of 13,914 women were enrolled between 23 and 26 weeks' gestation. Women completed a questionnaire, underwent a physical examination, and had genital specimens taken for culture. A subset of 1459 women were reexamined during the third trimester. Pregnancy outcomes were recorded at delivery. RESULTS: The prevalence of moderate to heavy Candida colonization at midgestation was 10%. Colonized women, 83% of whom carried C. albicans, were more likely to be black or Hispanic, unmarried, a previous oral contraceptive user, and to manifest clinical signs indicative of Candida carriage. Candida colonization was positively associated with Trichomonas vaginalis, group B streptococci, and aerobic Lactobacillus and was not associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Candida colonization is not associated with low birth weight or preterm delivery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)374-380
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1998

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


  • Candida
  • Cohort study
  • Epidemiology
  • Pregnancy


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