This review was written to update the review that we published in Nutrition Research in 2007 by examining studies published in the last 11 years which describe the effects of trace mineral deficiencies and micronutrient supplementation on HIV infection and its progression. In addition, we included studies that explore the interactions between Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) and micronutrient nutrition, focusing on the essential trace minerals. This review summarizes the results described in relevant articles that were identified by literature searches conducted using the OVID Medline database. Four of the nine essential trace minerals, specifically chromium, iron, selenium, and zinc, can influence HIV progression and/or its treatment. Notably, copper-containing filters may prevent transmission of the HIV virus via breastfeeding. However, there is a lack of good evidence to date that fluoride, iodine, manganese, or molybdenum influence HIV infection. Recent studies reveal that HAART can alter serum trace mineral and vitamin concentrations, but the effects vary based on the medications used. Although they have contributed useful new data, the sample sizes for most of these studies were too small to draw definitive conclusions for introducing changes in the management of HIV infection. Larger studies are needed to better understand and define the roles of trace mineral and vitamin deficiencies and micronutrient supplementation in the management and treatment of HIV-infected patients.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Nutrition and Dietetics
- HIV progression
- Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART)
- Trace minerals