Estimation of quartz resonator Q and other figures of merit by an energy sink method

Yook Kong Yong, Mihir S. Patel, Masako Tanaka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


An important determinant of the quality factor Q of a quartz resonator is the loss of energy from the electrode area to the base via the mountings. The acoustical characteristics of the plate resonator are changed when the plate is mounted onto a base substrate. The base substrate affects the frequency spectra of the plate resonator. A resonator with a high Q may not have a similarly high Q when mounted on a base. Hence, the base is an energy sink and the Q will be affected by the shape and size of this base. A lower bound Q will be obtained if the base is a semi-infinite base since it will absorb all acoustical energies radiated from the resonator. A scaled boundary finite element method is employed to model a semi-infinite base. The frequency spectra of the quartz resonator with and without the base are presented. In addition to the loss of energy via the base, there are other factors which affect the resonator Q, such as, for example, material dissipation, and damping at the interfaces of quartz and electrodes. The energy dissipation due to material damping increases with the resonant frequency and the reduction of resonator size; hence material damping becomes important in the current and future miniaturized resonators operating at very high frequencies. An energy sink model along with material dissipation would provide realistic Q, motional capacitance, motional resistance, and other figures of merit useful for designing resonators. The model could be used for evaluating resonator and mountings designs of microelectromechanical systems and miniaturized devices. The effect of the mountings, and plate and electrode geometries on the resonator Q and other electrical parameters are presented for AT-cut quartz resonators. Model results from the energy sink method were compared with experimental results and were found to be good.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1386-1398
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2007

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Instrumentation
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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