Neuroendocrine changes are essential factors contributing to the progression and development of rheumatoid arthritis. However, the role of estrogen in the innate immunity during arthritis development is still controversial. Here, we evaluated the effect of estrous cycle, ovariectomy, estradiol replacement therapy and treatment with estrogen receptor (ER)α and ERβ specific agonists on joint edema formation, neutrophil recruitment, and articular levels of cytokines/chemokines in murine zymosan-induced arthritis. Our results showed that articular inflammation of proestus/estrus was similar to metaestus/diestrus animals indicating that the inflammatory response in acute arthritis is not affected by the estrous cycle. However, ovariectomy increased joint swelling, neutrophil migration, and TNF-α level. Treatment for six consecutive days with estradiol cypionate re-established the acute inflammation in ovariectomized arthritic mice to responses similar to those in SHAM-proestrus/estrus or naive mice. Moreover, treatment with propylpyrazoletriol and diarylpropionitrile, two ERα and ERβ selective agonists, respectively, inhibited both edema and neutrophil recruitment. Finally, the non-genomic properties of estradiol were analyzed with an acute treatment with β-estradiol-water soluble, which reduced the edema only. In the present study, estradiol replacement therapy improves the innate immune responses in ovariectomized arthritic mice by activating nuclear estrogen receptors. These results suggest that estradiol can induce a protective anti-inflammatory effect in arthritis during ovaries failure, as observed in the menopause.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy