Obesity induced by high-fat diets (HFDs) is inversely associated with vitamin D status and bone health. However, the associations and effects of excessive fat intake on hepatic and renal vitamin D metabolism have not been addressed. The primary objective was to determine if excessive energy and fat intake, or the type of fat, affects serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration and whether this can be explained by an alteration of vitamin D–regulating enzymes in older mice. The second objective was a follow up of our recent findings that a high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) is not detrimental to bone in lean mice and whether this is also true under conditions of diet-induced obesity. In the study, twenty-one 8-month-old female C57BL/6 J mice were fed ad libitum for 10 weeks with a 10% normal-fat diet (NFD) or 45% HFD enriched with MUFA or saturated fatty acids (SFA). We found that the HFD, compared with NFD, resulted in greater energy intake, weight gain, total body fat, and liver fat (P <.05). Only the high SFA feeding resulted in higher mRNA but lower protein abundance of hepatic Cyp2r1 and lower renal Cyp24a1 mRNA expression than the NFD group (P <.05). Moreover, although bone mineral density did not differ among groups, the percent difference compared with NFD was significantly lower for SFA (P <.05) but not MUFA. Also, femoral trabecular bone volume fraction was lower (P <.05) only in the SFA compared with the NFD group. In conclusion, high SFA and MUFA feeding differentially affected gene and protein expressions of major vitamin D hydroxylases compared with NFD, but this was unrelated to the lower circulating 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration. In addition, only the SFA diet alters vitamin D metabolism and bone changes, indicating the importance of dietary fat composition.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Nutrition and Dietetics
- High-fat diet
- Monounsaturated fat
- Saturated fat
- Vitamin D hydroxylase