External cause-specific summaries of occupational fatal injuries. Part I: An analysis of rates

A. John Bailer, James F. Bena, Leslie T. Stayner, William Halperin, Robert M. Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Background: Industries and occupations vary with respect to the incidence of fatal injuries and their causes. Methods: Fatalities from the National Traumatic Occupational Fatality database (years 1983-1994) serve as the basis for examining external cause of death code specific rates. Industries and occupations are compared with respect to rate and frequency of fatal injuries. In addition, external causes of injury (E-codes) are examined across all industries and occupations as well as within industries and occupations to evaluate which events would be identified by frequency ordered comparisons versus injury rate ordered comparisons. Results: Machinery, electric current, homicide, falls, and transportation-related events are identified by high frequency and rate of occurrence. Conclusions: The external cause categories of homicide, machinery-related, motor-vehicle-related, electric current, and falls, account for over one-half of all occupational fatal injuries. Targeted interventions in homicide may be especially warranted in sales and service occupations and in the retail trade and services industries. In addition, younger workers might be targeted for special interventions designed to identify hazardous practices, procedures, and solutions to reduce fatalities associated with electrocution or fallsfrom buildings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)237-250
Number of pages14
JournalAmerican journal of industrial medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2003

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


  • E-codes
  • Electrocution
  • Fall injuries
  • Machine injuries

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