External occlusive devices for management of female urinary incontinence

Gloria Bachmann, Brinda Wiita

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objectives: Urinary incontinence affects 11 million women in the United States and is most common in older women. There are several different forms of urinary incontinence, which can be distinguished by their associated pathophysiologic conditions and signs. Genuine stress incontinence is the instantaneous leakage of urine in response to raised intraabdominal pressure associated with such activities as lifting, sneezing, and coughing. Risk factors for development of this form of incontinence include vaginal delivery, vaginal surgery, inadequate estrogen levels, and advanced age. Surgery, the most effective curative treatment for stress incontinence, is invasive and expensive and can lead to impairment of normal urinary tract functions. Other management options include pelvic floor rehabilitation by means of exercise, pharmacotherapy, intravaginal and intraurethral devices, absorbent products, and external occlusive devices. Methods: A review of publications on the effectiveness of available external occlusive devices is presented, with special emphasis on a new, single-use, disposable urethral cap device which offers women with stress incontinence an over-the-counter product that enables them to independently manage their incontinence according to their individual needs. Results: Non-surgical methods of managing urinary incontinence are available, with newer methods providing a greater range of choices for women. Conclusions: External occlusive devices can be effectively used by women with urinary incontinence who will not or cannot have surgical correction of the problem.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)793-800
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Women's Health
Issue number9
StatePublished - Nov 2002

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine(all)


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