Regular exercise is important for reducing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and/or cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, only about 40-50% of this CVD risk reduction is accounted for by adiposity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Herein, we present the novel hypothesis that extracellular vesicles (EVs) are candidate biomarkers that may relate to impaired endothelial function and insulin resistance independent of obesity risk factors. EVs are small membrane-bound particles that are generated by cells following stimulation, stress, or activation. They carry markers of their parent cell and are thought to be potent bioactivators and communicators. We discuss the underlying physiology of specific cell type EVs, as well as examine how acute and chronic exercise interventions impact EV count and phenotype. We also propose that current gaps in the field are in part related to use of different detection techniques and the lack of standardized measurements of EV affecting the pre- and postanalytical phase. Ultimately, improving the understanding of how EVs impact cardiometabolic health and their function will lead to improved approaches for enhancing diagnostic options as well as designing exercise interventions that treat and/or prevent T2D and CVD.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism