Eye growth and myopia development: Unifying theory and Matlab model

George K. Hung, Kausalendra Mahadas, Faisal Mohammad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


The aim of this article is to present an updated unifying theory of the mechanisms underlying eye growth and myopia development. A series of model simulation programs were developed to illustrate the mechanism of eye growth regulation and myopia development. Two fundamental processes are presumed to govern the relationship between physiological optics and eye growth: genetically pre-programmed signaling and blur feedback. Cornea/lens is considered to have only a genetically pre-programmed component, whereas eye growth is considered to have both a genetically pre-programmed and a blur feedback component. Moreover, based on the Incremental Retinal-Defocus Theory (IRDT), the rate of change of blur size provides the direction for blur-driven regulation. The various factors affecting eye growth are shown in 5 simulations: (1 - unregulated eye growth): blur feedback is rendered ineffective, as in the case of form deprivation, so there is only genetically pre-programmed eye growth, generally resulting in myopia; (2 - regulated eye growth): blur feedback regulation demonstrates the emmetropization process, with abnormally excessive or reduced eye growth leading to myopia and hyperopia, respectively; (3 - repeated near-far viewing): simulation of large-to-small change in blur size as seen in the accommodative stimulus/response function, and via IRDT as well as nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM), leading to the development of myopia; (4 - neurochemical bulk flow and diffusion): release of dopamine from the inner plexiform layer of the retina, and the subsequent diffusion and relay of neurochemical cascade show that a decrease in dopamine results in a reduction of proteoglycan synthesis rate, which leads to myopia; (5 - Simulink model): model of genetically pre-programmed signaling and blur feedback components that allows for different input functions to simulate experimental manipulations that result in hyperopia, emmetropia, and myopia. These model simulation programs (available upon request) can provide a useful tutorial for the general scientist and serve as a quantitative tool for researchers in eye growth and myopia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)106-118
Number of pages13
JournalComputers in Biology and Medicine
StatePublished - Mar 1 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Health Informatics
  • Computer Science Applications


  • Blur
  • Dopamine
  • Emmetropization
  • Incremental Retinal-Defocus Theory (IRDT)
  • Model simulation
  • Myopia
  • Nearwork-induced transient myopia
  • Refractive error


Dive into the research topics of 'Eye growth and myopia development: Unifying theory and Matlab model'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this