Fatigue history and in-situ loading studies of the overload effect using high resolution X-ray strain profiling

Mark C. Croft, Najeh M. Jisrawi, Zhong Zhong, Ronald L. Holtz, Kuntimaddi Sadananda, John R. Skaritka, Thomas Tsakalakos

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38 Scopus citations


High-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments are used to perform local crack plane strain profiling of 4140 steel compact tension specimens fatigued at constant amplitude, subjected to a single overload cycle, then fatigued some more at constant amplitude. X-ray strain profiling results on a series of samples employing in-situ load cycling are correlated with the crack growth rate (da/dN) providing insight into the da/dN retardation known as the "overload effect". Immediately after the overload, the strain under maximum load is greatly reduced but the range of strain, between zero and maximum load, remains unchanged compared to the pre-overload values. At the point of maximum retardation, it is the strain range that is greatly reduced while the maximum-load strain has begun to recover to the pre-overload value. For a sample that has recovered to approximately half of the original da/dN value following the overload, the strain at maximum load is fully recovered while the strain range, though partially recovered, is still substantially reduced. The dominance of the strain range in the overload effect is clearly indicated. Subject to some assumptions, strong quantitative support for a crack growth rate driving force of the suggested form [(Kmax)1-p(ΔK)p]γ is found. A dramatic nonlinear load dependence in the spatial distribution of the strain at maximum retardation is also demonstrated: at low load the response is dominantly at the overload position; whereas at high loads it is dominantly at the crack tip position. This transfer of load response away from the crack tip to the overload position appears fundamental to the overload effect for high R-ratio fatigue as studied here.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1726-1736
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Fatigue
Issue number9-11
StatePublished - Sep 2007

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


  • Fatigue
  • Overload
  • Strain
  • Synchrotron
  • X-ray


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