Female sex is associated with reintervention and mortality following elective endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

Taylor Corsi, Michael A. Ciaramella, Nadia K. Palte, John P. Carlson, Saum A. Rahimi, William E. Beckerman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: Although sex differences in endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) outcomes have been increasingly reported, the determination of contributing factors has not reached a consensus. We investigated the disparities in sex-specific outcomes after elective EVAR at our institution and evaluated the factors that might predispose women to increased morbidity and mortality. Methods: We performed a retrospective medical record review of all patients who had undergone elective EVAR from 2011 to 2020 at a suburban tertiary care center. The primary outcomes were 5-year survival and freedom from reintervention. The Fisher exact test, t tests, and Kaplan-Meier analysis using the rank-log test were used to investigate the associations between sex and outcomes. A multivariable Cox proportional hazard model controlling for age and common comorbidities evaluated the effect of sex on survival and freedom from reintervention. Results: A total of 273 patients had undergone elective EVAR during the study period, including 68 women (25%) and 205 men (75%). The women were older on average than were than the men (76 years vs 73 years; P ≤. 01) and were more likely to have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (38% vs 23%; P = .01), require home oxygen therapy (9% vs 2%; P = .04), or dialysis preoperatively (4% vs 0%; P = .02). The distribution of other common vascular comorbidities was similar between the sexes. The 30-day readmission rate was greater for the women than for the men (18% vs 8%; P = .02). The women had had significantly lower survival at 5 years (48% ± 7.9% vs 65% ± 4.3%; P < .01) and significantly lower 1-year (women, 89% ± 4.1%; vs men, 94% ± 1.7%; P = .01) and 5-year (women, 69% ± 8.9%; vs men, 84% ± 3.3%; P = .02) freedom from reintervention. On multivariable analysis, female sex (hazard ratio [HR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.9), congestive heart failure (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-3.9), and older age (HR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1) were associated with 5-year mortality. Female sex remained as the only variable with a statistically significant association with 5-year reintervention (HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.1-4.9). Conclusions: Female sex was associated with decreased 5-year survival and increased 1- and 5-year reintervention after elective EVAR. Data from our institution suggest that factors beyond patient age and baseline health risk likely contribute to greater surgical morbidity and mortality for women after elective EVAR.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1494-1501.e1
JournalJournal of Vascular Surgery
Volume76
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Keywords

  • Abdominal aortic aneurysm
  • Adverse outcomes
  • EVAR
  • Sex factors
  • Vascular surgical procedures

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