Fermented Duckweed as a Potential Feed Additive with Poultry Beneficial Bacilli Probiotics

Rachel Mahoney, Richard Weeks, Qingrong Huang, Weijie Dai, Yong Cao, Guo Liu, Yongjing Guo, Vladimir A. Chistyakov, Alexey M. Ermakov, Dmitry Rudoy, Anzhelika Bren, Igor Popov, Michael L. Chikindas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this study, the duckweed varieties Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza, and a commercially processed duckweed food supplement were investigated as potential substrates for the propagation of two probiotic Bacillus strains, B. subtilis KATMIRA1933 and B. amyloliquefaciens B-1895. Both L. minor and S. polyrhiza were found to be suitable substrates for the propagation of both bacilli, with 8.47–9.48 Log CFU/g and 10.17–11.31 Log CFU/g after 24 and 48 h growth on the substrates, respectively. The commercial duckweed product was a less favorable substrate, with growth reaching a maximum of 7.89–8.91 CFU/g after 24 h with no further growth after 48 h. Growth and adherence of the bacilli to the three products were confirmed via electron microscopy. These strains have demonstrated health-promoting benefits for poultry and thereby have the potential to enhance duckweed as an animal feed through the process of fermentation. Duckweed has been shown to be a promising alternative resource for protein and has the opportunity to become a valuable resource in multiple industries as a potential means to increase sustainability, food security, and reduce environmental impact.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1425-1432
Number of pages8
JournalProbiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Microbiology
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology


  • Alternative protein source
  • Bacillus
  • Duckweed
  • Lemnaceae
  • Probiotics
  • Solid-state fermentation
  • Sustainable farming
  • Valorization


Dive into the research topics of 'Fermented Duckweed as a Potential Feed Additive with Poultry Beneficial Bacilli Probiotics'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this