Fiber-based tissue-engineered scaffold for ligament replacement: Design considerations and in vitro evaluation

James A. Cooper, Helen H. Lu, Frank K. Ko, Joseph W. Freeman, Cato T. Laurencin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

387 Scopus citations


The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the major intraarticular ligamentous structure of the knee, which functions as a joint stabilizer. It is the most commonly injured ligament of the knee, with over 150,000 ACL surgeries performed annually in the United States. Due to limitations associated with current grafts for ACL reconstruction, there is a significant demand for alternative graft systems. We report here the development of a biodegradable, tissue-engineered ACL graft. Several design parameters including construct architecture, porosity, degradability, and cell source were examined. This graft system is based on polymeric fibers of polylactide-co-glycolide 10:90, and it was fabricated using a novel, three-dimensional braiding technology. The resultant micro-porous scaffold exhibited optimal pore diameters (175-233μm) for ligament tissue ingrowth, and initial mechanical properties of the construct approximate those of the native ligament.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1523-1532
Number of pages10
Issue number13
StatePublished - May 2005
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Bioengineering
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Biophysics
  • Biomaterials
  • Mechanics of Materials


  • Anterior cruciate ligament
  • Degradable
  • Ligament and ligament tissue engineering
  • Ligament repair
  • Polymer
  • Porosity
  • Tissue engineering

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