First Responders: Innate Immunity to Helminths

Juan M. Inclan-Rico, Mark C. Siracusa

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

53 Scopus citations


Helminth infections represent a significant public health concern resulting in devastating morbidity and economic consequences across the globe. Helminths migrate through mucosal sites causing tissue damage and the induction of type 2 immune responses. Antihelminth protection relies on the mobilization and activation of multiple immune cells, including type 2 innate lymphocytes (ILC2s), basophils, mast cells, macrophages, and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Further, epithelial cells and neurons have been recognized as important regulators of type 2 immunity. Collectively, these pathways stimulate host-protective responses necessary for worm expulsion and the healing of affected tissues. In this review we focus on the innate immune pathways that regulate immunity to helminth parasites and describe how better understanding of these pathways may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)861-880
Number of pages20
JournalTrends in Parasitology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Parasitology
  • Infectious Diseases


  • Mucosal Immunology
  • helminth parasites
  • innate immunity
  • type 2 cytokines


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