Flame synthesis of gamma-iron-oxide (γ-Fe2O3) nanocrystal films and carbon nanotubes on stainless-steel substrates

Hua Hong, Nasir K. Memon, Zhizhong Dong, Bernard H. Kear, Stephen D. Tse

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Scopus citations


Using a rapid, open-atmosphere flame synthesis technique, iron-oxide nanoparticles (α-Fe2O3) and nanocrystals (γ-Fe2O3) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are grown directly on stainless steel substrates. Multiple inverse-diffusion flames provide both oxide species (H2O and CO2) and carbon species (CH4, CO, C2H2), at elevated temperature, conducive for the growths of iron-oxide nanoparticles/nanocrystals and CNTs. The growth of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles occurs at 500 °C. At a temperature of 850 °C, the growth of CNTs occurs on type 304 stainless steel, while γ-Fe2O nanocrystal films are grown on 304 L and 316 L stainless steels with relatively lower innate carbon content. Interestingly, a temperature-step process, where 304 stainless steel substrate is initially at 500 °C and then increased to 850 °C, distinctly converts the "seed" α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles into larger γ-Fe2O3 nanocrystals, with some scattered CNTs. Strategically time-varied local conditions should produce different compositional ratios of iron-oxide/CNT hybrid films, as well as targeted functionally-graded nanostructures and nanocomposites.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1249-1256
Number of pages8
JournalProceedings of the Combustion Institute
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2019


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


  • carbon nanotubes
  • flame synthesis
  • iron oxide
  • nanocrystals
  • stainless steel

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