Frequency dependent parametric radiation through a nonlinear fundamentally slow travelling wave structure

Shuping Li, Minning Zhu, Yichao Yuan, Chung Tse Michael Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This article presents a nonlinear leaky wave antenna (LWA) with frequency dependent parametric radiation based on a fundamentally slow-wave transmission line (TL) structure. Unlike a conventional LWA that radiates at the excitation frequency, the radiation for the proposed travelling wave structure relies on the parametric frequencies based on the injected pump signals. The proposed nonlinear fundamentally slow wave structure utilizes a periodic sharply bend TL loaded by varactor diodes as nonlinear elements. By utilizing the n = −1 spatial harmonic, the fundamentally slow wave structure can enter the leaky wave region at higher frequencies, where the parametric radiation results from the bifurcation of the injected pump signals. Such TL-based nonlinear LWA reduces the design complexity and fabrication difficulty. The resulting parametric frequency radiation can be used for beam steering, which provides additional degree of design freedom.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2723-2727
Number of pages5
JournalMicrowave and Optical Technology Letters
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


  • dispersion
  • leaky wave antenna
  • metamaterial
  • nonlinear circuits
  • parametric frequencies


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