Gender and Racial Disparity Among Liver Transplantation Professionals: Report of a Global Survey

Victoria Aguilera, Oya Andacoglu, Claire Francoz, Gabriela Berlakovich, Sher Lu Pai, Dieter Adelmann, Simantika Ghosh, Keri E. Lunsford, Martin Montenovo, Anna Mrzljak, Irene Scalera, Qinfen Xie, Chiara Becchetti, Marina Berenguer, Nazia Selzner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Equality, diversity, and inclusion (EDI) are fundamental principles. Little is known about the pattern of practice and perceptions of EDI among liver transplant (LT) providers. International Liver Transplant Society (ILTS) EDI Committee survey around topics related to discrimination, mentorship, and gender. Answers were collected and analyzed anonymously. Worldwide female leadership was also queried via publicly available data. The survey was e-mailed to 1312 ILTS members, 199 responses (40.7% female) were collected from 38 countries (15.2% response rate). Almost half were surgeons (45.7%), 27.6% hepatologists and 26.6% anesthetists. Among 856 LT programs worldwide, 8.2% of leadership positions were held by females, and 22% of division chiefs were female across all specialties. Sixty-eight of respondents (34.7%) reported some form of discrimination during training or at their current position, presumably related to gender/sexual orientation (20.6%), race/country of origin (25.2%) and others (7.1%). Less than half (43.7%) received mentorship when discrimination occurred. An association between female responses and discrimination, differences in compensation, and job promotion was observed. This survey reveals alarmingly high rate of experience with racial and gender disparity, lack of mentorship, and very low rates of female leadership in the LT field and calls to action to equity and inclusion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number10506
JournalTransplant International
StatePublished - Aug 16 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Transplantation


  • gender equality
  • leadership
  • liver transplantation
  • racial disparity
  • women physicians


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