We utilized proteomic techniques in a primate model (Macaca fascicularis) of aging to determine potential mechanisms to explain gender differences in protection of the aging heart. The majority of prior work in this field utilized rodent models, and importantly no prior study utilized a proteomic approach in the aging heart. We studied changes in proteins in seven monkeys in each group (young and old males and females (YMs, OMs, YFs, and OFs, respectively)), and used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in combination with mass spectrometry in five monkeys in each group. We found decreases (P < 0.05) in the expression of key enzymes in glycolysis (e.g. pyruvate kinase, α-enolase, triosephosphate isomerase), glucose oxidation (e.g. pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 β-subunit), and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase) in left ventricular (LV) samples from OM monkeys; these changes in glycolytic, glucose oxidation, and TCA enzymes were not observed either in YMs, YFs or OFs. We found additional gender differences in the reduced expression and function of proteins that are responsible for electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria only in hearts from OM monkeys, with corresponding decreased oxidation rates with NADH and ascorbate-N,N, N′,N′ ́ ́-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine substrates. The changes in glycolytic and mitochondrial metabolic pathways in OM monkey hearts are similar to changes observed in hearts affected by diabetes or LV dysfunction, and could be involved in the mechanism for the cardiomyopathy of aging. The sparing of these changes in OF hearts could be involved in the mechanism mediating delayed cardiovascular risk in OFs.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine