Global scale distribution, seasonal changes and long-range transport potentiality of endosulfan in the surface seawater and air

Yuan Gao, Hongyuan Zheng, Yinyue Xia, Minghong Cai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

Endosulfan I, II, and sulfate were detected in the atmosphere and surface seawater on a global scale during three Chinese National Arctic-Antarctic Research Expeditions in 2016 and 2017. Concentrations of the three species displayed seasonal variations in seawater in the Northern Hemisphere but remained steadily low on Antarctic coasts. Endosulfan sulfate was predominant in the Northern Hemisphere, whereas isomer I was more abundant in the Southern Hemisphere. Endosulfan was detected in the atmosphere over the western Pacific Ocean but rarely in the central Arctic and North Atlantic oceans. Its concentration in seawater increased with increasing latitude in the Southern Ocean. Although fugacity ratios indicate a strong potential for deposition of endosulfan, air-seawater exchange may be slow, as suggested by the large differences between atmospheric and seawater concentrations. Ocean current endosulfan loads varied markedly between seasons. Three-day backward trajectories indicate that Northeast Asia is the major source of atmospheric endosulfan in the western Pacific Ocean, whereas the central Arctic and North Atlantic oceans are affected more by local air masses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number127634
JournalChemosphere
Volume260
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2020
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Keywords

  • Atmospheric sources
  • Endosulfan
  • Global distribution
  • Ocean current loads
  • Weak air-sea exchange

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