Glutamine and glutamate: Nonessential or essential amino acids?

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Glutamine and glutamate are not considered essential amino acids but they play important roles in maintaining growth and health in both neonates and adults. Although glutamine and glutamate are highly abundant in most feedstuffs there is increasing evidence that they may be limiting during pregnancy, lactation and neonatal growth, particularly when relatively low protein diets are fed. Supplementation of diets with glutamine, glutamate or both at 0.5 to 1.0% to both suckling and recently weaned piglets improves intestinal and immune function and results in better growth. In addition such supplementation to the sow prevents some of the loss of lean body mass during lactation, and increases milk glutamine content. However, a number of important questions related to physiological condition, species under study and the form and amount of the supplements need to be addressed before the full benefits of glutamine and glutamate supplementation in domestic animal production can be realized.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)119-122
Number of pages4
JournalAnimal Nutrition
Volume1
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2015

Fingerprint

Essential Amino Acids
Glutamine
essential amino acids
glutamine
glutamates
Glutamic Acid
Lactation
lactation
Growth
Protein-Restricted Diet
lean body mass
low protein diet
Domestic Animals
animal production
suckling
domestic animals
sows
piglets
Milk
neonates

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Food Animals
  • Animal Science and Zoology

Keywords

  • Amino acid
  • Glutamate
  • Glutamine
  • Growth
  • Lactation
  • Pregnancy

Cite this

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title = "Glutamine and glutamate: Nonessential or essential amino acids?",
abstract = "Glutamine and glutamate are not considered essential amino acids but they play important roles in maintaining growth and health in both neonates and adults. Although glutamine and glutamate are highly abundant in most feedstuffs there is increasing evidence that they may be limiting during pregnancy, lactation and neonatal growth, particularly when relatively low protein diets are fed. Supplementation of diets with glutamine, glutamate or both at 0.5 to 1.0{\%} to both suckling and recently weaned piglets improves intestinal and immune function and results in better growth. In addition such supplementation to the sow prevents some of the loss of lean body mass during lactation, and increases milk glutamine content. However, a number of important questions related to physiological condition, species under study and the form and amount of the supplements need to be addressed before the full benefits of glutamine and glutamate supplementation in domestic animal production can be realized.",
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Glutamine and glutamate : Nonessential or essential amino acids? / Watford, Malcolm.

In: Animal Nutrition, Vol. 1, No. 3, 01.09.2015, p. 119-122.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

TY - JOUR

T1 - Glutamine and glutamate

T2 - Nonessential or essential amino acids?

AU - Watford, Malcolm

PY - 2015/9/1

Y1 - 2015/9/1

N2 - Glutamine and glutamate are not considered essential amino acids but they play important roles in maintaining growth and health in both neonates and adults. Although glutamine and glutamate are highly abundant in most feedstuffs there is increasing evidence that they may be limiting during pregnancy, lactation and neonatal growth, particularly when relatively low protein diets are fed. Supplementation of diets with glutamine, glutamate or both at 0.5 to 1.0% to both suckling and recently weaned piglets improves intestinal and immune function and results in better growth. In addition such supplementation to the sow prevents some of the loss of lean body mass during lactation, and increases milk glutamine content. However, a number of important questions related to physiological condition, species under study and the form and amount of the supplements need to be addressed before the full benefits of glutamine and glutamate supplementation in domestic animal production can be realized.

AB - Glutamine and glutamate are not considered essential amino acids but they play important roles in maintaining growth and health in both neonates and adults. Although glutamine and glutamate are highly abundant in most feedstuffs there is increasing evidence that they may be limiting during pregnancy, lactation and neonatal growth, particularly when relatively low protein diets are fed. Supplementation of diets with glutamine, glutamate or both at 0.5 to 1.0% to both suckling and recently weaned piglets improves intestinal and immune function and results in better growth. In addition such supplementation to the sow prevents some of the loss of lean body mass during lactation, and increases milk glutamine content. However, a number of important questions related to physiological condition, species under study and the form and amount of the supplements need to be addressed before the full benefits of glutamine and glutamate supplementation in domestic animal production can be realized.

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KW - Glutamine

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KW - Lactation

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