The aim of this chapter is to present the archeobotanical record related to the hearth structures from level J from Abric Romaní. For this study we include charcoal, phytoliths and wood imprints that from different methodological approaches provide data on hearth functioning and firewood management. The results yielded by these archeobotanical assemblages point out that wood was the basic fuel used by Neanderthals for maintaining hearths and pine wood was the most appreciated. Other fuels such as grasses are also recorded and might have specific uses during the combustion processes. Finally wood imprints, even if in level J are scarce, point out the use of wood for other purposes than firewood. This study points out the complexity of Neanderthal behavior in relation to the management of fire involving fuel management and hearth functioning.