The hematologic management of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding requires evaluation of the underlying cause of bleeding, associated diseases that can exacerbate the bleeding, and identification of related and unrelated coagulation abnormalities. Erythrocyte transfusions are given to increase oxygen carrying capacity; however, there is limited information on the level of anemia that places a patient at increased risk of adverse events after a GI bleed and when patients should receive erythrocyte transfusion. Isolated thrombocytopenia is uncommon in patients with GI bleeding, and there is little evidence documenting the degree of thrombocytopenia associated with an increased risk of bleeding. Platelets are often administered when the count is 50,000 per cu/mL in a bleeding patient. The coagulopathy of liver disease is the most common abnormality seen in the setting of GI bleeding. Fresh- frozen plasma (FFP) should be given in a dose equivalent to the underlying abnormality and the common practice of administering 2 units of FFP is often insufficient in a bleeding patient.
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