OBJECTIVES: The emergence of carbapenemase-positive Enterobacteriaceae poses a serious threat to public health worldwide. Here we conducted a molecular surveillance study on carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) colonization among migratory birds at Qinghai Lake in China. METHODS: A total of 420 samples from migratory birds and their surrounding environment were collected at three sites along the Qinghai Lake bird island. Carbapenem-non-susceptible isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and MALDI-TOF MS. Carbapenemase producers were determined by Carba NP testing. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, transfer ability and PFGE were also performed, and 46 isolates from different pulsotypes were analysed by WGS. RESULTS: Three hundred and fifty isolates were carbapenemase producers based on Carba NP testing, while 233 Klebsiella spp. and 2 Escherichia coli isolates were NDM-5-carriers. PFGE was performed and showed that the isolates were grouped into five pulsotypes; among these, type A was predominant (86.7%, n = 202) and belonged to a novel Klebsiella lineage, ST1697. WGS analysis indicated that ST1697 strains may be a hybrid of the recombination of Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae genomes. CONCLUSIONS: This high frequency of carbapenemase producers in migratory birds is unexpected. These results provide new insight into the spread of antibiotic resistance, and highlight that continued vigilance for MDR carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in migratory birds is urgently needed.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Microbiology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases
- Pharmacology (medical)