High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein: Friend and foe

Luis Ulloa, Davorka Messmer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

330 Scopus citations

Abstract

HMGB1 was originally identified as a DNA-binding protein that functions as a structural co-factor critical for proper transcriptional regulation in somatic cells. Recent studies indicate that HMGB1 can be "passively released" into the extracellular milieu by necrotic and damaged somatic cells. Extracellular HMGB1 represents an optimal "necrotic marker" selected by the innate immune system to recognize tissue damage and initiate reparative responses. HMGB1 in the extracellular milieu promotes maturation of myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and induces myocardial regeneration after infarction. However, extracellular HMGB1 also acts as a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine that contributes to the pathogenesis of diverse inflammatory and infectious disorders. A growing number of studies indicate that HMGB1 is a successful therapeutic target in experimental models of ischemia/reperfusion, acute respiratory distress syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, sepsis, and cancer. From a clinical perspective, HMGB1 represents a current challenge that can be exploited orchestrate reparative responses while preventing its pathological potential. This article focus on the immuno-regulatory role of HMGB1 and its contribution to infectious and inflammatory disorders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)189-201
Number of pages13
JournalCytokine and Growth Factor Reviews
Volume17
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2006
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology

Keywords

  • DNA-binding protein
  • Extracellular HMGB1
  • Pro-inflammatory cytokine

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