Hospital teaching status on the outcomes of patients with esophageal variceal bleeding in the United States

Pavan Patel, Laura Rotundo, Evan Orosz, Faiz Afridi, Nikolaos Pyrsopoulos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND Acute variceal bleeding is a major complication of portal hypertension and is a leading cause of death in patients with cirrhosis. There is limited data on the outcomes of patients with esophageal variceal bleeding in teaching versus nonteaching hospitals. Because esophageal variceal bleeding requires complex management, it may be hypothesized that teaching hospitals have lower mortality. AIM To assess the differences in mortality, hospital length of stay (LOS) and cost of admission for patients admitted for variceal bleed in teaching versus nonteaching hospitals across the US. METHODS The National Inpatient Sample is the largest all-payer inpatient database consisting of approximately 20% of all inpatient admissions to nonfederal hospitals in the United States. We collected data from the years 2008 to 2014. Cases of variceal bleeding were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification codes. Differences in mortality, LOS and cost were evaluated for patients with esophageal variceal bleed between teaching and nonteaching hospitals and adjusted for patient characteristics and comorbidities. RESULTS Between 2008 and 2014, there were 58362 cases of esophageal variceal bleeding identified. Compared with teaching hospitals, mortality was lower in nonteaching hospitals (8.0% vs 5.3%, P < 0.001). Median LOS was shorter in nonteaching hospitals as compared to teaching hospitals (4 d vs 5 d, P < 0.001). A higher proportion of non-white patients were managed in teaching hospitals. As far as procedures in nonteaching vs teaching hospitals, portosystemic shunt insertion (3.1% vs 6.9%, P < 0.001) and balloon tamponade (0.6% vs 1.2%) were done more often in teaching hospitals while blood transfusions (64.2% vs 59.9%, P = 0.001) were given more in nonteaching hospitals. Using binary logistic regression models and adjusting for baseline patient demographics and comorbid conditions the mortality, LOS and cost in teaching hospitals remained higher. CONCLUSION In patients admitted for esophageal variceal bleeding, mortality, length of stay and cost were higher in teaching hospitals versus nonteaching hospitals when controlling for other confounding factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)288-297
Number of pages10
JournalWorld Journal of Hepatology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 27 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Hepatology


  • Bleeding
  • Cirrhosis
  • Length of stay
  • Mortality
  • National Inpatient Sample
  • Teaching hospital
  • Variceal bleeding

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