Human natural killer cells limit replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 in vitro.

Patricia Fitzgerald-Bocarsly, M. Mendelsohn, C. Lopez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

35 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Studies were undertaken to determine whether natural killer (NK) cells could inhibit the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in culture. In the absence of effector cells, HSV-1 was found to replicate in fibroblasts with up to a 100-fold increase in virus titer from 4 to 16 hr after incubation at 37 degrees C. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were found to limit virus replication in a dose-dependent manner, with the greatest inhibition being observed at the highest concentration evaluated: i.e., an effector:target ratio of 800:1. The antiviral effect was not observed when nonactivated or virus-activated mononuclear cells were added to the virus preparations at the end (instead of the beginning) of the assay period, indicating that the observed effect was not due to a nonspecific toxicity of soluble factors released from freeze-thawed effectors. Neither was inhibition of HSV-1 replication due to the generation of interferon (IFN) during the NK assay, because the addition of anti-IFN did not abrogate the antiviral effect. Thus, the inhibition of viral replication was most likely due to a cytotoxic effector rather than to release of soluble factors. The effector cells responsible for limiting HSV-1 replication were shown to be NK cells by a number of criteria. Mononuclear cells from both HSV-1 seropositive and seronegative donors limited virus replication; their activity could be boosted by pretreatment of effector cells with IFN; the effector cells which limited virus replication were found in Percoll gradient fractions enriched for large granular lymphocytes; and the effector cells shared the cell surface phenotype of NK cells--they were enriched in populations depleted of T cells by panning with Leu-4 and were depleted of activity by treatment with the anti-NK antibody Leu-11b plus complement. We conclude that human NK cells are capable of recognizing and lysing HSV-1-infected target cells before infectious virus progeny are generated. These results suggest that NK cells, acting early in the course of an infection, might serve to limit HSV-1 replication and therefore reduce the virus load in the host before the development of the adaptive immune response and clearance of the infection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2666-2672
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Immunology
Volume134
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 1985
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Human Herpesvirus 1
Natural Killer Cells
Virus Replication
Interferons
Viruses
Antiviral Agents
In Vitro Techniques
Adaptive Immunity
Infection
Viral Load
Blood Cells
Fibroblasts
Cell Count
Lymphocytes
T-Lymphocytes
Phenotype
Antibodies

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology

Cite this

@article{1e794dfb62204271b838212144d5a5c8,
title = "Human natural killer cells limit replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 in vitro.",
abstract = "Studies were undertaken to determine whether natural killer (NK) cells could inhibit the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in culture. In the absence of effector cells, HSV-1 was found to replicate in fibroblasts with up to a 100-fold increase in virus titer from 4 to 16 hr after incubation at 37 degrees C. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were found to limit virus replication in a dose-dependent manner, with the greatest inhibition being observed at the highest concentration evaluated: i.e., an effector:target ratio of 800:1. The antiviral effect was not observed when nonactivated or virus-activated mononuclear cells were added to the virus preparations at the end (instead of the beginning) of the assay period, indicating that the observed effect was not due to a nonspecific toxicity of soluble factors released from freeze-thawed effectors. Neither was inhibition of HSV-1 replication due to the generation of interferon (IFN) during the NK assay, because the addition of anti-IFN did not abrogate the antiviral effect. Thus, the inhibition of viral replication was most likely due to a cytotoxic effector rather than to release of soluble factors. The effector cells responsible for limiting HSV-1 replication were shown to be NK cells by a number of criteria. Mononuclear cells from both HSV-1 seropositive and seronegative donors limited virus replication; their activity could be boosted by pretreatment of effector cells with IFN; the effector cells which limited virus replication were found in Percoll gradient fractions enriched for large granular lymphocytes; and the effector cells shared the cell surface phenotype of NK cells--they were enriched in populations depleted of T cells by panning with Leu-4 and were depleted of activity by treatment with the anti-NK antibody Leu-11b plus complement. We conclude that human NK cells are capable of recognizing and lysing HSV-1-infected target cells before infectious virus progeny are generated. These results suggest that NK cells, acting early in the course of an infection, might serve to limit HSV-1 replication and therefore reduce the virus load in the host before the development of the adaptive immune response and clearance of the infection.",
author = "Patricia Fitzgerald-Bocarsly and M. Mendelsohn and C. Lopez",
year = "1985",
month = "4",
day = "1",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "134",
pages = "2666--2672",
journal = "Journal of Immunology",
issn = "0022-1767",
publisher = "American Association of Immunologists",
number = "4",

}

Human natural killer cells limit replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 in vitro. / Fitzgerald-Bocarsly, Patricia; Mendelsohn, M.; Lopez, C.

In: Journal of Immunology, Vol. 134, No. 4, 01.04.1985, p. 2666-2672.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Human natural killer cells limit replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 in vitro.

AU - Fitzgerald-Bocarsly, Patricia

AU - Mendelsohn, M.

AU - Lopez, C.

PY - 1985/4/1

Y1 - 1985/4/1

N2 - Studies were undertaken to determine whether natural killer (NK) cells could inhibit the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in culture. In the absence of effector cells, HSV-1 was found to replicate in fibroblasts with up to a 100-fold increase in virus titer from 4 to 16 hr after incubation at 37 degrees C. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were found to limit virus replication in a dose-dependent manner, with the greatest inhibition being observed at the highest concentration evaluated: i.e., an effector:target ratio of 800:1. The antiviral effect was not observed when nonactivated or virus-activated mononuclear cells were added to the virus preparations at the end (instead of the beginning) of the assay period, indicating that the observed effect was not due to a nonspecific toxicity of soluble factors released from freeze-thawed effectors. Neither was inhibition of HSV-1 replication due to the generation of interferon (IFN) during the NK assay, because the addition of anti-IFN did not abrogate the antiviral effect. Thus, the inhibition of viral replication was most likely due to a cytotoxic effector rather than to release of soluble factors. The effector cells responsible for limiting HSV-1 replication were shown to be NK cells by a number of criteria. Mononuclear cells from both HSV-1 seropositive and seronegative donors limited virus replication; their activity could be boosted by pretreatment of effector cells with IFN; the effector cells which limited virus replication were found in Percoll gradient fractions enriched for large granular lymphocytes; and the effector cells shared the cell surface phenotype of NK cells--they were enriched in populations depleted of T cells by panning with Leu-4 and were depleted of activity by treatment with the anti-NK antibody Leu-11b plus complement. We conclude that human NK cells are capable of recognizing and lysing HSV-1-infected target cells before infectious virus progeny are generated. These results suggest that NK cells, acting early in the course of an infection, might serve to limit HSV-1 replication and therefore reduce the virus load in the host before the development of the adaptive immune response and clearance of the infection.

AB - Studies were undertaken to determine whether natural killer (NK) cells could inhibit the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in culture. In the absence of effector cells, HSV-1 was found to replicate in fibroblasts with up to a 100-fold increase in virus titer from 4 to 16 hr after incubation at 37 degrees C. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were found to limit virus replication in a dose-dependent manner, with the greatest inhibition being observed at the highest concentration evaluated: i.e., an effector:target ratio of 800:1. The antiviral effect was not observed when nonactivated or virus-activated mononuclear cells were added to the virus preparations at the end (instead of the beginning) of the assay period, indicating that the observed effect was not due to a nonspecific toxicity of soluble factors released from freeze-thawed effectors. Neither was inhibition of HSV-1 replication due to the generation of interferon (IFN) during the NK assay, because the addition of anti-IFN did not abrogate the antiviral effect. Thus, the inhibition of viral replication was most likely due to a cytotoxic effector rather than to release of soluble factors. The effector cells responsible for limiting HSV-1 replication were shown to be NK cells by a number of criteria. Mononuclear cells from both HSV-1 seropositive and seronegative donors limited virus replication; their activity could be boosted by pretreatment of effector cells with IFN; the effector cells which limited virus replication were found in Percoll gradient fractions enriched for large granular lymphocytes; and the effector cells shared the cell surface phenotype of NK cells--they were enriched in populations depleted of T cells by panning with Leu-4 and were depleted of activity by treatment with the anti-NK antibody Leu-11b plus complement. We conclude that human NK cells are capable of recognizing and lysing HSV-1-infected target cells before infectious virus progeny are generated. These results suggest that NK cells, acting early in the course of an infection, might serve to limit HSV-1 replication and therefore reduce the virus load in the host before the development of the adaptive immune response and clearance of the infection.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0022049072&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0022049072&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 2982949

AN - SCOPUS:0022049072

VL - 134

SP - 2666

EP - 2672

JO - Journal of Immunology

JF - Journal of Immunology

SN - 0022-1767

IS - 4

ER -