Background: Found in 36-41% of hypertension, elevated left ventricular mass (LVM) independently predicts cardiovascular events and total mortality. Conversely, drug-induced regression of LVM predicts improved outcomes. Previous studies have favored renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASIs) over other antihypertensives for reducing LVM but ignored differences among thiazide-type diuretics. From evidence regarding potency, cardiovascular events, and electrolytes, we hypothesized a priori that 'CHIP' diuretics [CHlorthalidone, Indapamide and Potassium-sparing Diuretic/hydrochlorothiazide (PSD/HCTZ)] would rival RASIs for reducing LVM. Method and results: Systematic review yielded 12 relevant double-blind randomized trials. CHIPs were more closely associated with reduced LVM than HCTZ (P = 0.004), indicating that RASIs must be compared with each diuretic separately. Publication bias favoring RASIs was corrected by cumulative analysis. For reducing LVM, HCTZ tended to be less effective than RASIs. However, the following surpassed RASIs: chlorthalidone Hedge's G: -0.37 (95% CI -0.72 to -0.02), P = 0.036; indapamide -0.20 (-0.39 to -0.01), P = 0.035; all CHIPs combined (with 61% of patients in one trial) -0.25 (-0.41to -0.09), P = 0.002. Statistical significance (P < 0.05) did not depend on any one trial. CHIPs reduction in LVM was 37% greater than that from RASIs. CHIPs superiority tended to increase with trial duration, from a negligible effect at 0.5 year to a maximal effect at 0.9-1.0 years: -0.26 (-0.43 to -0.09), P = 0.003. Fifty-eight percent of patients had information on echocardiographic components of LVM: relative to RASIs, CHIPs significantly reduced end-diastolic LV internal dimension (EDLVID): -0.18 (-0.36 to -0.00), P = 0.046. Strength of evidence favoring CHIPs over RASIs was at least moderate. Conclusion: In these novel results in patients with hypertension, CHIPs surpassed RASIs for reducing LVM and EDLVID.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- left ventricular hypertrophy
- potassium sparing
- renin-angiotensin system inhibitors